An FF, or Flip-Flop, is a circuit element used to store data. Standard FFs can be used to store data in the form of 1 or 0, but to store several data bits, many FFs are required. In these cases, a shift register is used to store the data. A shift register is an electronic device used to store and move data in a series of connected FFs. They are considered sequential circuits, mainly used to store data and move it to the output on each clock cycle. In general, there are four types of shift registers: serial in serial out (SISO), serial in parallel out (SIPO), parallel in serial out (PISO), and parallel in parallel out (PIPO).


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Over the past few decades, we have seen a great amount of advancements in how we transfer data and carry out telecommunications. While connecting a computer or device to the internet used to require direct connection to a modem or dial-up system, many can now utilize the capabilities of the internet through wireless connection provided by a wireless router. Also known as a Wi-Fi hub, wireless routers are networking devices that connect to a broadband line to transmit data from the internet provider to wirelessly connected devices.


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While aircraft are primarily air based vehicles that rely on wings and other aerodynamic structures for flight, wheels still play a crucial role in operations and should never be overlooked. From taking on the weight of the aircraft to allowing for it to land properly and be transported across a runway, aircraft tires serve many important uses that are often taken for granted. Due to their high importance in providing more safety and functionality to an aircraft, understanding the basics of their construction and maintenance can be useful for ensuring that they have long service lives and perform well under extreme conditions.


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Since the advent of the internet, newer technology has greatly increased the capabilities in which we can transfer and receive data over networks. While the base speed of the internet may depend on your network provider, the physical cables that are used to shift data around from system to system also have a major effect on data speeds that may throttle performance if they are not powerful enough. While coaxial cables serve as an old and reliable form of cabling for networking, newer fiber optic cables are quickly revolutionizing speeds and performance with their powerful capabilities.


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Automobiles have rapidly changed how our society functions, allowing for individuals to travel great distances quickly and with ease. For a vehicle engine to operate successfully, they require an ignition system that is responsible for igniting fuel for the combustion process. While this procedure is typically handled by a spark plug and an electric current, the technology and components that make up the ignition system as a whole may vary from type to type. Since the advent of automobiles, a great number of advancements have been made to ignition systems, and the main types that are commonly used include the distributor automotive ignition system, the distributor-less automotive ignition system, and the coil-on-plug ignition system.


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It is against the laws (set forth by the Federal Aviation Administration) to operate any aircraft of any kind that does not possess exterior aircraft lights, otherwise known as navigation lights. This law was made specifically to prevent any incident that could pose dangers to passengers inside, neighboring planes, or people living on the ground below. In other words, the law was made to ensure the safety of the general population and ensure that pilots are operating at a safe capacity. 


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In the early days of aviation, pilots often had to rely on the slow speeds of aircraft, friction of tail skid, airfield surfaces, and other factors to slow down planes that were devoid of aircraft brake parts. After World War I, aircraft began to improve upon their wheel and brake systems, allowing for safer ground operations with better stopping power and times. With brakes, pilots obtained the ability to taxi around and steer more efficiently, opening up more opportunities for flight and safety capabilities.


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When procuring parts and components for an aircraft hydraulic system, it can sometimes be difficult to decide between hoses or tubes. Both component types are very common to hydraulic assemblies, and each may serve a particular section well with their properties. Nevertheless, there are some advantages and disadvantages to using each as a component for an assembly, and understanding the differences between the two can help in making a well informed decision.


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For the conjoining and securing of aircraft hardware parts and structures together, aircraft rivets and fasteners are used. Aircraft fasteners are simply hardware devices that are used to join two or more components together in a secure fashion, either permanently or non-permanently. There are multiple types of fasteners, such as rivets, pins, screws, nuts, bolts, washers, nails, and more. Rivets are a type of permanent fastener that consist of a cylindrical shaft that feature a head on one side and a tail on the other. For installation, a rivet is passed through the hole of the object it is to fasten, and then the tail is deformed as to form a second head on the other side, securing the components together. In this blog, we will discuss the various types and uses of rivets that are used within the aerospace industry.


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When travelling long distances by aircraft, it is only a matter of time before you start wondering when the familiar airline galley cart will roll down the aisles to provide food and drinks. While your stomach may be happy enough once it has received food, your mind still may be wondering where and how all the food and drinks for an entire passenger flight are kept in such a small aircraft, and how it is all prepared and delivered to passengers. The aircraft galley and galley cart help the crew store, prepare, and provide nourishment for passengers, and their capabilities and efficiency are constantly changing and improving with the advent of newer technologies. In this blog, we will discuss the galley and carts of commercial aviation.


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When ascending into higher elevations, air pressure gradually lessens and breathing can become more labored. At high enough altitudes, conditions of oxygen, pressure, and temperature can even become dangerous to humans. Due to this, aircraft have been specifically engineered to maintain a comfortably pressured environment for passengers during flight. This means that every component must be designed to withstand the difference of pressure on the inside and outside of the fuselage. While windows and structures remain permanently closed and/or sealed, the main doors are openable. Luckily for any worried passenger, their design specifically prevents any possible openings or malfunction during flight.


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Lights are probably not the first thing that comes to mind when you think about the most important components of a functional aircraft. However, the lights are all over an aircraft, and each one of them serves an important purpose. Just as important as the lights themselves is their installation. Aircraft engineers must be up to the task of installing functional lights that don’t interfere with passenger comfort, aircraft utility, or safety. 


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Aircraft have sophisticated electrical systems made up of a multitude of varying components, each with an important role. An average aircraft electrical system consists of a generator, battery, master switch, generator switch, bus bar, fuses, circuit breakers, voltage regulators, ammeter, and corresponding wiring. The generator’s purpose is to supply electric currents to the electrical system and maintain sufficient charge in the battery. The energy in the battery is used to start the engine and also provides a small supply of power in the event of a failure of the generator.


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Electrical cables, or power cables, perform the vital task of transmitting electrical power from one device to another. Without them, power stations, computer networks, televisions, telephones, and all other kinds of electronic devices would not be able to function. What type of cable is used depends on requirements like size, configuration, and performance.


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When talking about aviation, it can be easy to focus on the intricate, ‘flashy’ parts of an aircraft like the engines, controls, avionics. Etc. These are all undeniably vital for a functioning aircraft, but equally vital is the aircraft’s hardware, the humble nuts, bolts, screws, and rivets that hold the airframe together. There’s no point in designing and manufacturing the perfect engine for an aircraft, after all, uf substandard bolts will cause it to tear itself off of the fuselage, after all! According to the Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics General Handbook, aircraft hardware is “the term used to describe the various types of fasteners and miscellaneous small items used in the manufacture and repair of aircraft.”


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Lighting is a critical part of ensuring an aircraft’s safety in low-visibility conditions, such as night or inclement weather. Numerous regulations placed by international conventions government agencies like the Federal Aviation Authority and the European Aviation Safety Agency dictate their placement, numbers, and brightness.


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